Leptospirosis is caused by spiral-shaped pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira, family leptospiraceae and spirochaetales orders. The genus Leptospira consists of 2 species of the pathogenic L interrogans and L biflexa are saprofitik.Angka deaths from leptospirosis is high, reaching 5-40 percent. Mild infection is estimated at 90 percent of cases. Children under five, the elderly and patients who have low immune system has a high mortality risk. At the age above 50 years, the risk of death could reach 56 percent. Jaundice in patients who have experienced liver damage, risk of death over this disease can tinggi.Penularan by rats, pigs, cows, goats, horses, dogs, insects, birds, hedgehogs, bats and squirrels. This disease can strike all ages, the majority aged 10-39 years, then maybe age is a risk factor.
Indonesian in, the most common transmission is through the mouse. Rat urine carried by floods and then enter the human body through wounded skin, eyes and mucous membranes of the nose. It could also be through food or water contaminated with urine of infected rats Leptospira. So far the mouse is a breeding ground and also the main spreaders leptospirosis. Some other animals such as cows, goats, sheep, horses, pigs, dogs can be caught leptospirosis, but the potential to infect humans is not for rats. Leptospirosis is not transmitted directly from patient to patient.
Leptospirosis incubation period from 2 to 26 days. Once in the bloodstream, these bacteria can spread throughout the body and cause problems, especially liver and kidney. In the kidney, the bacteria can cause inflammation of the kidneys and tissue death to kidney failure. Liver disorders may also occur that can cause jaundice (yellow skin). If the muscle then Leptospira can cause swelling, tissue damage to the disruption of capillary permeability of blood vessels, whereas pulmonary disorders that often happens is coughing blood.
Leptospirosis infection has a very varied symptoms sometimes even almost no symptoms, so frequent errors in diagnosis. Nearly 15-40 percent of infected patients are not symptomatic but positive lab tests. Incubation period is 7-12 days with a range of 2-20 days. Approximately 90 percent of patients with mild jaundice, severe jaundice is 5-10 percent which is often known as Weil’s disease. Leptospira disease progression consists of 2 phases, namely phase and phase immune septicemia. In the phase transition period for 1-3 days the patient condition improved.
Initial phase is known as the phase or phases septisemik because leptospiremik bacteria can be isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and most of the early tubuh.Fase networks around 4-7 days, marked nonspecific flu-like symptoms with a few variations. Clinical manifestations of fever, chills, weakness and pain, especially ribs, back and abdomen. Other symptoms are sore throat, cough, chest pain, vomiting of blood, rash, headache, frontal, fotofobia, mental disorders, and meningitis.
How to avoid or reduce the risk of leptospirosis is to avoid or reduce contact with the animals exposed to approximately the water or contaminated land. Wear gloves, gowns and goggles. Consider environmental hygiene and rodents such as mice must be observed. Complications depend on the course of the disease and its treatment. Estimated condition of the patient in the future depending on the light or the severity of infection.